India

INDIA COUNTRY

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Basic Information

Capital: New Delhi

Prime minister: Narendra Modi

President: Pranab Mukherjee

Population: 1.252 billion (2013) World Bank

Currency

Currency - Indian Rupee

This event was known as "the fall of the rupee." The history of the Indian rupee traces back to Ancient India in circa 6th century BCE, ancient India was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. In 1861, the government of India introduced its first paper money: ₹10 notes in 1864, ₹5 notes in 1872, ₹10,000 notes in 1899, ₹100 notes in 1900, 50-rupee notes in 1905, 500-rupee notes in 1907 and 1000-rupee notes in 1909

Where is rupee from?

Rupert Clarke (born September 10, 1975), best known by his stage name Rupee, is a soca musician from Barbados. He was born in military barracks in Germany to a German mother and a Bajan father, who was serving in the British armed forces at the time. He later migrated to Barbados.

Boundaries of India

It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometers (1,269,219 sq mi). India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi)

Languages of India

India has 2 official languages at the national level - English and Hindi (spoken by 40% of India). Given that Indian states are free to choose their own languages there are 22 other official languages at the state level[1].

National level - Sanskrit (mother language of most Indian languages), Hindi, Urdu (language of many Muslims)

Regional level

  • South India - Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam
  • West India - Marathi, Gujarati, Konkani, Sindhi
  • East India - Oriya, Bengali, Maithili, Assamese, Bodo, Manipuri, Santhali
  • North India - Dogri (in Jammu & Kashmir), Kashmiri, Nepali, Punjabi

Climate In India

India has 'Tropical Monsoon' type of climate. The word monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word 'Mausim' which means seasonal reversal of the winds during the course of the year.

  • The whole of India has a tropical monsoonal climate, since the greater part of the country lies within the trophies, and the climate is influenced by the monsoons.
  • The position of the mountain ranges and direction of the rain-bearing winds are the two main factors that determine the climate of India
  • Alternating seasons is the chief characteristic of India's Climate.

Following are the climatic regions of India.

  1. Tropical Rain Forest:
    1. This type of climate is found on the west coastal plain and Sahyadris and in parts of Assam
    2. The temperatures are high, not falling below 18.2 degree c even during winter and rising to 29 degree C in April and May, the hottest months.
    3. Dense, forests and plantation agriculture with crops like tea, coffee and spices are the characteristics vegetation in the area.
  2. Tropical savanna:
    1. Most of the peninsula, except the semiarid zone in the leeside of the Sahyadris experiences this type of climate.
    2. A long dry weather lasting through winter and early summer and high temperature remaining above 18.2 degree C even during the winter seasons and rising as high as 32 degree C in summer are the chief characteristics of this climate.
    3. Nagpur has a mean temperature of 35.4 degree C for May which is the hottest month and 20.7 degree C for December the coldest month in the year.
    4. The natural vegetation all over the area is savanna.
  3. Tropical Semi-Arid Steppe Climate:
    1. The rain-shadow belt, running southward from central Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu, in the leeside of the Sahyadris and Cardamom Hills come under this type of climate of low and uncertain rainfall.
    2. Temperature varying from 20 degree C to 23.8 degree C for December and 32.8 degree C for May. Agriculturally, the climate is suitable only for dry farming and livestock rearing.
  4. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Steppe:
    1. This type of climate occurs over a broad crescent from Punjab to Kachchh between the Thar Desert to its west and the more humid climates of the Ganga Plain and the Peninsula to its east and south respectively.
    2. The climate, therefore, is transitional between these two areas. The annual rainfall is not only low but it is also highly erratic.
  5. Tropical Desert :
    1. The western part of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan and most of the part of Kachchh form the sandy wastes of the Thar which experiences a typical desert climate.
    2. Ganganagar has recorded a maximum temperature of 50 degree C, the highest record.
  6. Humid Sub-Tropical With Winter:
    1. A large area to the south of the Himalayas, east of the tropical and sub-tropical steppe and north of the tropical savanna running in a long belt from Punjab to Assam with a south-westward extension into Rajasthan east of the Aravalli Range, has this type of climate.
    2. Winers are dry except for a little rain received from the westerly depressions.
  7. Mountain Climate:
    1. The Himalayan and Karakoram ranges experience this type of climate with sharp contrasts between the temperatures of the sunny and shady slopes, high diurnal range of temperatures and high variability of rainfall.
    2. The trans-Himalayan region, Ladakh, where the south-west monsoon fails to reach, has a dry and cold climate and a spare and stunned vegetation.
  8. Drought in India:
    1. The dry areas of Rajasthan and the adjoining part of Haryana and Gujarat are liable to frequent drought conditions.
    2. Another area liable to frequent drought lies on the leeward side of the western Ghats.

 

Major Religions

  • Hinduism
  • Islam
  • Christianity
  • Sikhism
  • Buddhism

india_map

India is a vast South Asian country with diverse terrain – from Himalayan peaks to Indian Ocean coastline – and history reaching back 5 millennia. In the north, Mughal Empire landmarks include Delhi’s Red Fort complex, massive Jama Masjid mosque and Agra’s iconic Taj Mahal mausoleum. Pilgrims bathe in the Ganges in Varanasi, and Rishikesh is a yoga center and base for Himalayan trekking.

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